Internal combustion engine
With the help of improvements to components it is possible to reduce emissions. Fewer emissions are generated in the internal combustion engine (ICE) as less emission has to be cleaned in exhaust after-treatment. Temperature management is key for the best performance of drive systems. Using compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel for the ICE also presents big opportunities.
With the help of an intelligent combination of combustion engine and electric motor - using the respective optimal speed- and load range of both drive systems - there is big potential for reducing emissions.
There is big potential for battery electric vehicles (BEV). But there are still open issues, including production of CO2-neutral infrastructure electricity, infrastructure chargers, charging time, capacity and price of batteries, production and recycling batteries.
Fuel cell vehicles are a variation of BEV. This type of EV uses compressed hydrogen and a fuel cell to produce electricity. Challenges are CO2-neutral production and the infrastructure of hydrogen gas stations.